Extracts from a Reuters article by Selam Gebrekidan published on 7 March 2014 by The Chicago Tribune
NEW YORK (Reuters) – Royal Dutch Shell on Friday said construction crew members punctured its Houston-to-Houma (Ho-Ho) pipeline near Port Neches, Texas, on Thursday afternoon, releasing 364 barrels of crude oil.
The company said it shut the pipeline after the leak. Emergency crews and first responders were deployed to the scene and are using absorbent booms to contain the oil, Shell said.
John The pipeline that was ruptured by a Shell contractor (Houston-Houma or HoHo line) is one of the assets that Shell is trying to sell… they recently modified it to reverse the direction of flow. And while 100 barrels might not sound like much, the actual amount might be considerably more (it’s not easy to measure) and even 100 barrels (~16000 litres) is enough to make a bit of a mess… and incur some serious cleanup costs. Presumably, the pipeline itself is now shut down. The location is between Beaumont and Lake Sabine on the border between Texas and Louisiana. Global coverage for the pipeline, but not a great advertisement for an asset that Shell is trying to sell….
Extract from an article by John Pendleton published Friday 7 March 2014 by righands.com
In 2013 several of the major oil companies spent lavishly on offshore prospects and are now feeling the pain of exploration efforts that didn’t pay off. Royal Dutch Shell, for example, spent more than five billion dollars in a bid for Arctic oil that was mired in litigation and so far has produced little in the way of results. Under new leadership Shell is now scaling back drastically on exploration and is selling assets.
BP Will Create Create New Entity Just For Onshore Oil And Gas In U.S. – See more at: http://www.righands.com/news/news-detail/bp-will-create-create-new-entity-just-for-onshore-oil-and-gas-in-us-582#sthash.h0rvjYp9.dpuf
Extracts from article by Maxime Zech published on Friday 7 March 2014 by NL Times.nl
The Ukrainian parliament asked the new government on Wednesday for an investigation into the gas contract with Shell. There is suspicion that money is being funneled to ousted president Yanukovych and his cronies via the contract. The deal with Shell must be entirely clarified and must be off the table as soon as possible. As well as suspicion of corruption, Shell is also causing environmental damage in Ukraine by the application of techniques which are illegal in the Netherlands…
Extracts from an article byAlex Brummerpublished on 6 March 2014 by thisismoney.co.uk (The Daily Mail)
Royal Dutch Shell has often shown a rather cavalier approach to corporate governance. Its annual general meetings have become a battle ground over directors pay with institutional investors notably concerned over less than stretching bonus arrangements.
There has also been irritation over the failure to fulfil an undertaking to hold parallel annual meetings in London and the Hague.
It is a general principle on the London Stock Exchange that all shareholders, from the smallest private investor to big institutions, receive price sensitive information at the same time. So it is unfortunate that Shell chose selectively to release details of its views on Scottish independence before the new chief executive Ben van Beurden formally confirmed that the oil major – a key player in the North Sea – wants Scotland to remain part of the United Kingdom.
Extracts from an article byAlex Lawlerpublished on 6 March 2014 by Reuters
BP says U.S., Asia regulators ask for details after EU price probe
(Reuters) – BP Plc said regulators from the United States and Asia have asked it for information after the European Commission’s started an investigation last year into suspected manipulation of oil prices. London-based BP, Europe’s second-largest oil company, made the disclosure in its annual report released on Thursday. Last May, European authorities raided offices of BP, and Royal Dutch Shell and Statoil in an investigation of suspected price manipulation. “Related inquiries and requests for information have also been received from U.S. and other regulators following the European Commission’s actions,” BP said in its 2013 annual report, published on its website.
Extract from an article published by LAW360.com on 27 Feb 2014 under the headline…
Law360, New York (February 27, 2014, 4:15 PM ET) — Shell Oil Co. will pay $4 million to settle False Claims Act allegations that it sought payments from a Massachusetts fund for hazardous waste cleanup at its gas stations while it also received reimbursements from its insurers, state authorities said Thursday. Shell and its joint venture, Motiva Enterprises LLC, sought false reimbursements from Massachusetts’ Underground Storage Tank Petroleum Product Cleanup Fund program for more than a hundred gas stations throughout the state, but did not reveal to authorities that it also received payments from insurers, according…
For nearly a decade, we have operated under the Royal Dutch Shell Plc top level domain name, dealing on Shell’s reluctant behalf with redirecting job applications, business proposals, Shell pension enquiries, shareholder enquiries, complaints, invitations to speak at conferences, contact from the Dutch Defence Ministry and even terrorist threats. All meant for Shell. A humiliation that Shell continues to endure. We provide a global platform, on a responsible basis, for Shell whistleblowers to put confidential information, including insider information and leaked documents, into the public domain e.g. Sakhalin2.
Extracts from article byDmitry Solovyovpublished on 7 March 2014 by Reuters
ASTANA, March 7 (Reuters) – Kazakhstan is suing the multinational consortium developing the huge Kashagan oilfield in the Caspian Sea for 134.2 billion tenge ($737 million) over damage to the environment, the Environment Protection Ministry said on Friday. Production at Kashagan, the world’s biggest oil discovery in 35 years, which took 13 years and some $50 billion to bring onstream, began in September but was stopped just weeks later after gas was found to be leaking from its pipelines. Exxon, Royal Dutch Shell, Total, Eni and Kazakh state oil company KazMunaiGas each hold a 16.81 percent stake in Kashagan.
Extracts from an article by Dmitry Zhdannikov published on 7 March 2014 by Reuters
Over the past decade, Gazprom, 51-percent controlled by the state, has twice cut its supplies to Ukraine over pricing disputes with Kiev. That action also cut supplies to the EU, which gets 50 percent of Russian deliveries via Ukraine. Gazprom also helped the Kremlin nationalise Royal Dutch Shell’s Sakhalin gas project as Putin re-established Russia’s grip on the energy sector after predecessor Boris Yeltsin let it slip with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Despite setbacks at Sakhalin, Shell remains Gazprom’s partner in the project, calling it a very successful investment.
Extract from an excellent article by Ed Crooks of The Financial Times published 6 March 2014
The issue has come to a head after three years in which the price of crude has drifted down… while costs have continued to rise. Chevron’s and ExxonMobil’s shares have both risen by 11 per cent in the past three years, and Total’s by 8 per cent, while Royal Dutch Shell’s have fallen 2 per cent.
Extract from an article by Benjamin Horney published on 5 March 2014 by Law360.com
Law360, New York (March 05, 2014, 4:15 PM ET) — A unit of Southwestern Energy Co. will pay $180 million to buy out assets in Colorado’s Sand Wash Basin held by a Royal Dutch Shell PLC subsidiary and Quicksilver Resources Inc., the companies said Wednesday, in a deal intended to boost Southwestern Energy’s natural gas resources….
Extract from an article by Jim Landers published on 5 March 2014 by The Dallas Morning News
Exxon Mobil and Royal Dutch Shell are heading a group selected in 2012 to explore for gas off Ukraine’s western Black Sea coast in an area called Skifska. Negotiations on a production-sharing agreement with the Ukrainian government were underway in the weeks before street battles with government opponents led the country’s president to flee to Russia.
Extracts from article by CORAL DAVENPORT and STEVEN ERLANGER published on 5 March 2014 by The New York Times
At the helm of the new energy diplomacy effort is Carlos Pascual, a former American ambassador to Ukraine, who leads the State Department’s Bureau of Energy Resources. In an interview, Mr. Pascual asserted that his team’s efforts had already weakened Mr. Putin’s hand, and had helped lower Ukraine’s dependence on Russia for natural gas supplies to 60 percent, down from 90 percent. In addition, he said, the team is helping countries develop their own natural gas resources, including in partnership with American energy giants. Halliburton has started fracking for natural gas in Poland, while Shell last year signed a contract to explore for natural gas in Ukraine.
Extract from an article published on 5 March 2014 by BBC News
The chief executive of the oil company Shell has said he would like Scotland to “remain part of the UK”. Addressing the company’s annual reception in London on Wednesday, Ben van Beurden said he valued the “continuity and stability” of the UK.
Last week, Shell hosted the UK cabinet at its headquarters in Aberdeen. At the time, the chairman of Shell UK, Ed Daniels, said the independence debate was “a matter for Scottish people” and that “it would be wrong” for Shell to intervene.
Extracts from an article by Andrew Critchlowand James Quinn, published on 5 March 2014 at 10.14PM by The Telegraph
Ben van Beurden, chief executive of the Anglo-Dutch oil giant, said: “We’d like to see Scotland remain part of the United Kingdom. “Shell has a long history of involvement in the North Sea – and therefore in Scotland – and we have continued to invest heavily there.” In a speech to a reception in London on Wednesday night , Mr Van Burden said that one of the many things his company values about the UK “is the continuity and stability it offers”.
A selection of memorable images associated with the controversial track record of Royal Dutch Shell.
DISCLAIMER: This is not a Shell website nor is it officially endorsed by or affiliated with Royal Dutch Shell Plc. Originally co-founded by the late Alfred Donovan and his son John, it is now operated by John, Shell's "No.1 Enemy", aided by an expert team, with invaluable support from retired Shell senior executives and officials as guest contributors and leaked information from Shell insiders.
Shell’s reputation was destroyed in 2004 after FIVE consecutive cuts to its hydrocarbon reserves covering 55% of its total reserves. US and UK financial regulators imposed $150 million in fines on Shell for securities fraud. Shell was also rocked by class action lawsuits. Sir Philip Watts
and Walter van de Vijver (whose headcut images appear courtesy of The Wall Street Journal) were among the Shell executives forced to resign. More details at the foot of this column.
MORE DETAILS: The Shell reserves scandal brought about
the end of the Royal Dutch Shell Group in its original form as an Anglo-Dutch partnership.
Shell Transport & Trading Co and Royal Dutch Petroleum were unified into a single Dutch owned company - Royal Dutch Shell Plc.
Sir Philip turned to religion and is now a very wealthy priest after receiving a payoff/pension package from Shell reportedly worth $18.5 million. Walter van de Vijver in contrast was the victim of a sadistic sacking by his Shell senior management backstabbing colleagues.
SHELL RESERVES SECURITIES FRAUD UNFOLDS IN NEWS HEADLINES
Royal Dutch Shell conspired directly with Hitler, financed the Nazi Party, was anti-Semitic and sold out its own Dutch Jewish employees to the Nazis. Shell had a close relationship with the Nazis during and after the reign of Sir Henri Deterding, an ardent Nazi, and the founder and decades long leader of the Royal Dutch Shell Group. His burial ceremony, which had all the trappings of a state funeral, was held at his private estate in Mecklenburg, Germany. The spectacle (photographs below) included a funeral procession led by a horse drawn funeral hearse with senior Nazis officials and senior Royal Dutch Shell directors in attendance, Nazi salutes at the graveside, swastika banners on display and wreaths and personal tributes from Adolf Hitler and Reichsmarschall, Hermann Goring. Deterding was an honored associate and supporter of Hitler and a personal friend of Goring.
Deterding was the guest of Hitler during a four day summit meeting at Berchtesgaden. Sir Henri and Hitler both had ambitions on Russian oil fields. Only an honored personal guest would be rewarded with a private four day meeting at Hitler’s mountain top retreat.
Shell appeased and collaborated with the Nazis. The oil giant instructed its employees in the Netherlands to complete a form giving particulars about their descent, which for some, amounted to a self-declared death warrant. Shell used slave labor and was a close business partner in Germany of I.G. Farben, the notorious Nazi run chemical giant that also used slave labor and supplied the Zyklon-B gas used during the Holocaust to exterminate millions of people, including children. Shell continued the partnership with the Nazis in the years after the retirement of Sir Henri and even after his death. It was money generated on Shell forecourts around the world, profiteering from cartel oil prices, that funded the Nazi party and saved it from financial collapse. Evidence about Shell's Nazi connections can be found in extracts from "A History of Royal Dutch Shell" Volumes 1 and 2 authored by historians paid by Shell, who had unrestricted access to Shell archives. There are 67 pages in total, so takes some time to download.
Photograph (full size here) shows a Swastika flag flying at the head office of Royal Dutch Petroleum, 30 Carel van Bylandtlaan, The Hague, during the Nazi occupation of the in World War II (From Image Database Hague Municipal)
Sir Henri Deterding, the founder of the Royal Dutch Shell Group - known as "The Most Powerful Man in the World" - who became an ardent Nazi and financial supporter of Hitler and the Nazi party.
DISCLAIMER: This is not a Shell website nor is it officially endorsed by or affiliated with Royal Dutch Shell Plc.
MOLE: Shell CANADA and VALERO are in the process of "framing" a sales agreement for all downstream assets
LondonLad: Not hollering (that seems your forte at the moment) Donovan merely making the point that too often you adopt the tabloid approach when reporting on Shell, that is picking and choosing comments from other articles (often from the left wing Guardian newspaper), bundling up those that are most negative about Shell (very often ignoring the positives in the same article) and making it into a dramatic headline about Shell. I realise you have an alleged gripe against Shell but as the years have progressed your venom gets worse and worse, as I say like a cancer. There are many other anti-Shell nodding donkeys that attack them – some with justification. However, as I have asked 3 or 4 of them, some repeatedly, “did you make your concerns known to the company when you were working for them” – none have said yes. Clearly these, like yourself have a gripe (e.g. maybe forced early retirement?) but don’t care to admit it. Some of the ranting about Shell & Corrib, Shell & price fixing still haven’t progressed very far. Why? Perhaps there’s nothing in the story. Your story on Moody-Stuart and the attack on him viz Brent Spar abandonment is yet another example of your tabloid reporting – sure Greenpeace “thought it unwise” but, as is often the case with Greenpeace, based on fictitious numbers – did I see that added in the headline? No. Now breathe deeply and count to 10……..
REPLY BY JOHN DONOVAN: Basically you accused me of exploiting the Ukrainian situation by linking it to Shell. You came unstuck because of the number of subsequent articles making the same linkage. Shame you won’t admit it. As to what you say about me taking a tabloid approach and focussing on the negative, is it not naive for you to expect a gripe site aimed at Shell to take any other course of action. If you want a positive spin on all things Shell, then visit shell.com and read their press releases. If readers are interested in a counterbalancing approach, then hopefully we provide it. Please also bear in mind that we publish all kinds of articles about Shell, whether containing positive or negative information. I have no objection to being linked to the Guardian. It is as you correctly describe it, a left wing newspaper, but nonetheless an essential read to form a balanced view of world events. Personally, I think its a great newspaper, as are some titles perceived as being at the other end of the political spectrum. No, early retirement was not forced on me. I was never a Shell employee. As to the ongoing investigations into the Corrib project and oil price fixing, only time will tell as to the official outcome. I do know that the allegations made by OSSL are genuine. I cannot say the same about the allegations of oil price fixing. I simply do not know. Turning to Mark Moody-Stuart, I have not made any comment about him for some time. The comments you refer to were made in the Guardian article, not by me. I repeat, you are blaming me for comments I never made. Contrary to your assertion, it was not my story. With regards to who is getting over-excited, other visitors can read your comments and mine and make their own judgement. In my view, you need to spend a little more time pondering on the issues and establishing facts before posting comments.
John Donovan: LondonLad, you started hollering far too quickly about me linking Royal Dutch Shell with unfolding events in Ukraine. My article was the first to do so and others have followed since then, including articles by Reuters, Forbes, The Motley Fool, The Dallas Morning News and The New York Times. I would suggest that before making a fool of yourself again, you should perhaps reflect more carefully on a relevant subject before getting over-excited and posting a comment that backfires so spectacularly.
Mole: VALERO is in discussions with SHELL CANADA to acquire downstream assets in 2015
Relieved: With regard to the latest crisis in the Ukraine - It is true that many pipelines pass through Ukrainian territory. It is also true that the Ukraine is an incredibly rich agricultural region. It is also true that the eastern portion of the Ukraine has a large population of ethnic Russians, a result of many decades of Soviet occupation. If Putin gets a wild hair up his gazoo I would anticipate he would try to annex that portion of the Ukraine east of the Dnieper River. This would give him the Crimean peninsula and the industrial heartland of Ukraine, including the former Soviet closed city of Dnipropetrovsk.This city was a key nuclear weapons, aerospace, and weapons development center, which is why it was closed. It was also the home of Soviet ballistic missile design and fabrication bureaus. The Ukraine was also where many Soviet ICBM's were based. And now it may be that the Ukraine is sitting on a treasure trove of natural gas. So, there is a reason why Putin (and Shell) has such an attachment to the Ukraine.
Relieved: LondonLad: So glad you have returned. Your incisive and objective analysis is so 'original' and interesting. Keep up the good work !!!
LondonLad: Wow Donovan your latest “article” titled “Royal Dutch Shell uncertainty in Ukraine” clearly shows your hatred of Shell has taken over like a cancer. Trying to attach the name of Shell to everything that springs to mind with this terrible conflict, and previous Shell activities, shows you need to pop along to the clinic for some medication. Reply to LondonLad by John Donovan: You may not like what is stated, but it is all true. I have added several words to the paragraph about Vosers surprise resignation. I am not the only news publisher to see the link between events in Ukraine and the implications for Royal Dutch Shell and energy supplies for the EU. See "Ukrainian Unrest Has These Eight Energy Companies On Edge." And: This Is The Gas Pipeline Map That Shows Why The Crisis In Ukraine Affects All Of Europe. For the record, I do not hate Shell nor anyone who has ever worked for Shell. I do however believe that it is wrong for Shell to pretend that it operates within an ethical code when that clearly is not the case. In my experience Shell is a ruthless, predatory, unprincipled company that prefers cover-up to transparency. Shell closed its Tell Shell discussion forum years ago - hence your regular postings here, not on shell.com. Finally, I find some of your comments offensive and displaying the characteristics of a troll, since you continue to make personal remarks while hiding behind an alias.
Ivan Byrne: I have been tracking some very odd political contributions from Royal Dutch Shell and Chevron in the Ukraine. Almost seems like they were the big money behind the recent political unrest. Have you guys done the same? I traced two political parties and several prominent politicians to Shell Oil contributions.
Outsider: It's ironic that the story of the fire at the Convent refinery is posted adjacent to Bill Campbell's article about Prelude. If it can happen in a refinery such as Convent or Texas City, it can certainly happen on board a ship.
BILL CAMPBELL - PRELUDE: John
Just a reply to the so called negativity. I think I stress that without risk taking man would still be living in caves. As far as FLNG I was involved as a Gamechanger member in RTS in the late 90's in approval of seed funding for the project which I very much want to succeed. The article is essentially about design philosophy related to risk on what are very special industrial plants handling hazardous substances (offshore installations) and the paradox about what would be acceptable in a planning application on land compared to what is done in international waters on the high sea.
I believe the period of highest risk likely to be during the initial start up, chilling the tanks etc, in 24 years of design, construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance of offshore installations I cannot recall everything going by the book, there is always something waiting to bite you on the bum. On a Cormorant Alpha, or a Brent Charlie, there were mechanisms, rapid blow down etc to get rid of the heat energy, but not on Prelude.
If it has a problem over the years my bet would be that it was not related directly to loss of LNG but gas from the front end process or from the supply of gas that routes way back to the utilities to feed the 6 boiler plants. It's often the less sexy plant that causes the start of the domino effect. For example, in 2004 in Algeria an explosion in a steam boiler triggered a second more massive vapour cloud explosion and fire. The explosion and fire destroyed a portion of the LNG plant causing 27 deaths and 74 injuries ad material damage well outside the plant boundaries. This plant covered several square miles, workers could escape on all points of the compass, but still you have these catastrophic events, not many granted, but if the cat gets out of the bag, it can be very unforgiving, especially on the limited confines of an offshore installation. This is not negativity, its just fact. The risk matrix for Prelude will have taken this into account, so in summary, the potential loss of offshore is higher than for land plants, but even on land loss of life can be considerable. Prelude has 6 boilers, driving steam turbines, with AC Alternators producing some 100 MW, its quite a show on the utility side also.
Displayed below are some of the spectacular promotional campaigns my company Don Marketing created for Shell in the 1980s and 1990s. This was before the series of SIX high court actions we brought against Shell for stealing ideas (4) and for defamation (2) - all settled by Shell. This website is a permanent response by me to the malicious underhand tactics, including treachery, espionage and intimidation, used by Shell during and after the bouts of litigation. More information is printed at the foot of this column.
MORE DETAILS: After a solicitor acting for Shell threatened to make the litigation "drawn out and difficult" with the intention of draining the resources of a financially weaker opponent, my late father (Alfred Donovan) and I decided to mount a wide-ranging campaign as a counter-measure. We jointly founded the Shell Corporate Conscience Pressure Group, which nearly 15% of Shell UK retailers joined. We regularly conducted ethical surveys involving up to 1500 Shell petrol stations. All responses were opened and authenticated by an independent solicitor who supplied Affidavits confirming the results. In whole page announcements in trade magazines (examples above) we challenged Shell to commission and publish the resuits of independent research asking the same questions and offering respondents GUARANTEED anonymity. Shell never took up the invitation. Instead it asked the UK Advertising Standards Authority to investigate our Shell surveys. No problems were found. The head-cut image of Alfred Donovan appears courtesy of The Wall Street Journal.
IN JULY 2007, MR BILL CAMPBELL (ABOVE, A RETIRED GROUP AUDITOR OF SHELL INTERNATIONAL SENT AN EMAIL TO EVERY UK MP AND MEMBER OF THE HOUSE OF LORDS:
THIS IS WHAT IT SAID:
Subject: This could be the most important whistleblower email you have ever received.
Some unfortunate Royal Dutch Shell workers have already lost their lives. More lives are at stake.
My name is Bill Campbell. I am a former Group Auditor of Shell International. I am writing to you on a matter of conscience in an effort to avert the inevitability of another major accident in the North Sea. The consequences could potentially impact on families in many constituencies, including your own.
As Royal Dutch Shell and the Health & Safety Executive would acknowledge, I am an expert on safety matters relating to offshore oil and gas platforms. In 1999, I was appointed by Shell to lead a safety audit on the Brent Bravo platform. The audit revealed a platform management culture that basically gave a higher priority to production than the safety of Shell employees. To our astonishment we discovered that a "Touch F*** All" policy was in place. Worse still, safety records were routinely falsified and repairs bodged.
I personally brought the shocking situation to the attention of senior management including Malcolm Brinded, the then Managing Director of Shell Exploration & Production. I revealed that ESDV leak-off tests were purposely falsified, not once but many times and that Brent Bravo platform management had admitted responsibility for the dangerous practices being followed. In response to my team ringing alarm bells, management pledged to rectify the serious problems which had been uncovered.
When I later complained that the pledges were not being kept, I was removed from my oversight function.
Four years later, a massive gas leak occurred on the platform. Two workers lost their lives. I have no doubt at all that the inaction of the relevant Asset Manager, the General Manager, the Oil Director and Malcolm Brinded, contributed in some part to the unlawful killing of two persons on Brent Bravo in September 2003.
Shell subsequently pleaded guilty to breaches of the HSE regulations and a record-breaking £900,000 fine was imposed. I thought this would bring about a real change in policy to put the emphasis on safety.
Unfortunately I was wrong. Although I supplied the evidence related to 1999, and the fact that there had been a collapse in controls of integrity from 1999 to 2003 on all 16 of Shell's North Sea offshore installations covered in a post fatality integrity review to the HSE for review by the Procurator Fiscal, none of this evidence was presented before the Sheriff at the subsequent Inquiry. The situation is explained in a letter to the Procurator Fiscal and the Sheriff (on 24th February 2007).
Shell management has engaged in spin to try to pretend that it is getting to grips with its safety problem. However, its atrocious safety record - the worst in the North Sea in terms of accidental deaths and absolute number of enforcement actions – tells a different story. This fact has resulted in a number of newspaper articles.
I have had meetings with senior Shell people including its CEO Mr. Jeroen van der Veer. I regret to say that I have found him to be economical with the truth. He prefers to support cover-up and deceit rather than confronting the underlying problems. Brinded is now Executive Director of Shell Exploration & Production. He believes in burying evidence.
My family and friends would probably prefer me to give up on this matter and enjoy my retirement after so many years working for Shell.
However, by writing to every MP in the UK, no one can ever say that I did not do my best to avert an inevitable further major accident event in the North Sea. When it happens (I pray that I am wrong) I will make this warning communication available to the media together with the vast amount of evidence in my possession.
At least my conscience is clear. I have done everything possible to ring the alarm bells about Shell management and its unscrupulous attitude to the safety of its employees.
(Malcolm Brinded and Jeroen van der Veer are no longer with Shell. The Oil Director referred to in the email is Chris Finlayson, now Chief Executive of British Gas - photo immediately below)
MORE INFORMATION, INCLUDING LINKS TO NUMEROUS RELATED NEWSPAPER ARTICLES, INCLUDING THE ONE FEATURED ABOVE, WILL BE PUBLISHED AT THE FOOT OF THIS COLUMN